Spanning more than 3000 km from northeast to southwest, the Japanese archipelago comprises four major islands and thousands of rocks and islets that stretch from Taiwan to the Russian Far East, and encompasses a wide range of habitats. Thus, Arctic landscapes and Alpine meadows in the north give way to subtropical forests in the south. These varied environments are home to some of the most dramatic and least-known birds in Asia, such as Steller’s Sea-eagle and Blakiston’s Eagle-owl on frozen Hokkaido. Some of the world’s rarest seabirds like Short-tailed Albatross and Bryan’s Shearwater breed on the country’s furthest-flung outposts, whilst the number of wintering cranes is of international importance. Exciting endemics like Lidth’s Jay, Amami Woodcock and Okinawa Rail are found on the southern islands, and a suite of summer visitors ranges from the spectacular Fairy Pitta to the enigmatic Ijima’s Leaf-warbler. Few countries possess the ornithological allure of Japan!